I start this "retrotech" thread with the Dutch Windmill, published by Tommy Mueller. This windmill is designed to carry water upwards to another higher table or irrigation platform. Wings capture the wind energy which is transmitted, by the gears, to the water wheel.
It is a very old principle: water wheels for raising water in a chain of pots or for driving norias were described by Philo of Byzantium in the 3rd century BC and Vitruvius describes the gearing system that regulated the speed during the 1st century BC. The image below is a virtual rendering of his watermill, described in his treatise on architecture (De Architectura).
URL (in French): https://rome.unicaen.fr/pdr_realisations.php?fichier=machines/moulinEau
Later, it was mainly the Dutch who developed the most efficient form of windmill, around the 16th century, which can be seen in Tommy's publication.
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