Have you tried simulating UR robots with any simulation-offline programming software? Which one is more intuitive for educational purposes? And which one is the most useful for extracting accurate cycle time?
While it uses Fanuc robots and not universal, Fanuc's roboguide software is what we use and it would really help in teaching programming and simulation. It requires payloads of the End-of-arm-tools, inertia's, the whole works and the programs can be transferred from the software to an actual robot and modified as needed.
Robodk's cycle time estimations in offline simulations are exactly the same as if I calculate the time of tcp with basic motion equations. I mean this is fine for offline simulations, but is there any way to be more accurate? we have some minor delays for the signal in the start and at the end of the motion, or due to the inertia, or when we go beyond manufacturer's proposed inputs fot velocity and acceleration.